Chapter 29

### INTRODUCTION

My MRI shows I have a damaged disc at L5/S1. I am disappointed that I can never play basketball, golf and go for a run ever again. A neurosurgeon says he can perform a fusion. Is there anything else I can do?

24-year-old athlete with disabling low back pain

Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability in the world affecting both the general population and athletes alike. In this chapter we outline a contemporary, multidimensional understanding of LBP and detail a clinical perspective of assessing and managing the disorder.

The anatomy of the low back is shown in Figure 29.1.

###### Figure 29.1

Anatomy of the low back (a) Surface anatomy (b) Muscles of the lower back from behind (c) The intervertebral segment (d) The three-joint complex consisting of the intervertebral disc and the two zygapophyseal (facet) joints (e) Segmental motion: (i) flexion/extension (sagittal plane motion); (ii) torsion (transverse plane motion); (iii) side bending (frontal plane motion) showing compressive and torsional forces

### EPIDEMIOLOGY

Back pain affects up to 85% of the population at some time in their lives. LBP is rarely reported before the age of 10; however, during adolescence there is a rapid increase in the reporting of LBP reaching near-adult rates (lifetime prevalence of 70%) at the age of 17 years. While the majority (70–80%) improve from an acute episode over a 3-month period irrespective of treatment, between 50–80% will have at least one recurrent episode. However, for up to 20–30%, LBP can become persistent and disabling, limiting sporting activity, physical functioning and impacting on a person’s quality of life.1

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