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I don’t know. I never smoked AstroTurf.

Tug McGraw, when asked if he preferred grass or artificial turf, 1974


The use of performance-enhancing drugs is probably the major problem facing sport today. Despite intense efforts by sporting bodies and the medical profession to eliminate the problem, drug-taking to assist sports performance remains widespread.


The International Olympic Committee’s (IOC) definition of doping is:


The use of an expedient (substance or method) which is potentially harmful to an athlete’s health and/or capable of enhancing their performance, or the presence in the athlete’s body of a prohibited substance or evidence of the use thereof or evidence of the use of a prohibited method.


The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is responsible for producing and maintaining the World Anti-Doping Code containing the Prohibited List of Substances—substances and methods that are banned either at all times or in-competition only. Substances will be added to the list if they satisfy any two of the following three criteria:


  1. the potential for enhanced performance

  2. the potential for being detrimental to health

  3. they violate the spirit of sport.


The list is reviewed annually and an updated list commences on 1 January each year. The list that took effect on 1 January 2011 contains five classes of substances that are prohibited both in and out of competition, another four classes of substances prohibited in competition only, three methods prohibited in and out of competition, and two substances prohibited in particular sports.(see The 2011 Prohibited List World Anti-Doping Code)


The 2011 Prohibited List World Anti-Doping Code (valid 1 January 2011)1


Substances and methods prohibited at all times (in and out of competition)
  • S0. Non-approved substances

Prohibited substances
  • S1. Anabolic agents

  • S2. Peptide hormones, growth factors, and related substances

  • S3. Beta-2 agonists

  • S4. Hormone antagonists and modulators

  • S5. Diuretics and other masking agents

Prohibited methods
  • M1. Enhancement of oxygen transfer

  • M2. Chemical and physical manipulation

  • M3. Gene doping

Substances and methods prohibited in-competition Prohibited substances
  • S6. Stimulants

  • S7. Narcotics

  • S8. Cannabinoids

  • S9. Glucocorticosteroids

Substances prohibited in particular sports
  • P1. Alcohol

  • P2. Beta blockers


In addition, WADA monitors certain other substances (in 2011, stimulants and narcotics) to detect patterns of misuse; this may lead to these substances being added to the prohibited list in the future.


Athletes may have illnesses or conditions that require them to take banned medications. In these cases, the athlete may apply for a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) from their National Anti-Doping Organization or their International Federation to obtain authority to use the substance. WADA does not grant TUEs but may consider appeals related to the granting or denying of a TUE.


The prohibited list is shown in the box The 2011 Prohibited List World Anti-Doping Code. A summary of the prohibited classes of drugs, and their medical usage, ...

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